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Communities of practice



Collective-action for maternal newborn health

Check out the maternal and newborn health-focused communities of practice (CoPs) below to share, debate and discuss knowledge, evidence, and experiences. Do you know of a CoP that we should include? Let us know.

Membership: Open

For more information:


IBP Network

Care of the Small and Sick Newborn Community of Practice

The Care of the Small and Sick Newborn CoP (SSNB CoP) is an interactive platform that allows practitioners and experts to exchange ideas, share lessons learned, disseminate and discuss implementation research results and evidence in the area of newborn health.

Membership: Open


To join the CoP on WHO’s IBP Xchange online engagement platform, visit our SSNP CoP page here or email us!

World Health Organisation

Global Nursing and Midwifery Global Community of Practice

The Nursing and Midwifery Global Community of Practice has been established by the Chief Nursing Office at the World Health Organization. It is a virtual community where nurses and midwives around the world can meet, share evidence and practice, discuss, inform and support one another in order to contribute to building sustainable health systems.

Membership: Open

For more information:


Healthy Newborn Network

Healthy Newborn Network

The Healthy Newborn Network (HNN) is an online community dedicated to addressing critical knowledge gaps in newborn health. HNN provides a platform for organizations and professionals to share research, program experience, and thought leadership. The network also connects advocates around the world and provides a platform for discussions and interactions on a vast range of newborn and maternal health issues.

Membership: Open

For more information:

Paho American Health Organisation

Pan America Health Organization (PAHO)

Mission - To provide a virtual space for interaction and exchange of knowledge and experiences among nurses and other stakeholders in the Region of the Americas.

Vision - To collaboratively strengthen systems and services for universal access to health and universal health coverage and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Values - Respect, ethics, participation, communication, collaboration.

For more information:

Other related resources



99nicu is an independent and international Internet community for neonatal staff. 99nicu provides a platform for sharing expertise and experience regardless of geographical boundaries and time zones. 

Membership: Open

For more information:

Caring Essentials

Caring Essentials:  Trauma Informed Professional Certificate Program

Becoming a trauma informed professional (TIP) begins with unbundling one’s passion, mission, and noble purpose from the myriad of tasks, rituals and routines that often overshadow and overpower one’s presence in the caring moment. The attributes provide a road map for personal and professional growth and development that is the cornerstone for cultural transformation within healthcare and across our global society.

Membership: Open

For more information:


Global Newborn Society

Global Newborn Society

Our future, anywhere in the world, depends on how well we take care of our newborn and young infants. Health care professionals cannot do this alone. We need a ‘social movement’ to bring together families, medical professionals, charities, government agencies, policy makers, and every member of our society whose heart beats for babies.

Membership: Open

For more information:

International Council of Nurses

International Council of Nurses

The International Council of Nurses (ICN) is a federation of more than 130 national nurses’ associations (NNAs), representing 28 million nurses worldwide. Founded in 1899, ICN is the world’s first and widest reaching international organization for health professionals.

Membership: No individual membership must be member of National Organization

For more information:

International Neonatology Association

International Neonatology Association

The Association is established to promote high quality standards of neonatal practice and care for the benefit of the global public.

Membership: Fee

For more information:

International Society for Neonatal Screening

To enhance the quality of neonatal screening and medical services through dissemination of information, guidelines and best practices that benefit all family members and their babies by helping to ensure protection of babies from life-quality threatening conditions, such as phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, severe combined immunodeficiency, cystic fibrosis, hemoglobinopathies and many others.


Membership: Tiered Fee

For more information:

International Stillbirth Alliance

International Stillbirth Alliance

ISA’s mission is to raise awareness and promote global collaboration for the prevention of stillbirth and newborn death and provision of appropriate respectful care for all those affected. 

Membership: Tiered Fee

For more information:

National Association of Neonatal Therapist

National Association of Neonatal Therapist

The National Association of Neonatal Therapist (NANT) is the professional organization that serves neonatal occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologist. 

Membership: Fee

For more information:

Nest 360

NEST 360

We are an international alliance united to end preventable newborn deaths in African hospitals. 

Membership: Open

For more information:



Based on a mnemonic to optimize learning, retention and recall of information, S.T.A.B.L.E. stands for the six assessment and care modules in the program: Sugar, Temperature, Airway, Blood pressure, Lab work, and Emotional support. A seventh module, Quality Improvement, stresses communication and teamwork as well as the professional responsibility of evaluating care provided to sick infants, with the ultimate goal of improving future care. First introduced in 1996 in the US and Canada, S.T.A.B.L.E. has grown internationally to include instructor training and courses in more than 45 countries. Currently, there are more than 722,762 neonatal healthcare providers have completed a S.T.A.B.L.E. Learner course.

Membership: Must pay for training

For more information:

Contact:  Kristine Karlsen, PhD, APRN, NNP-BC, FAAN.  Send an inquiry

Canadian Neonatal Foundation

Canadian Neonatal Foundation

Quality Improvement integrated Kangaroo Mother Care

The Quality Improvement integrated Kangaroo Mother Care (QIiKMC) learning program enables an interactive process to assist healthcare professionals implement a program to help mothers (and other family members) learn how to provide kangaroo mother care with their small baby. Further information available by clicking on includes an introductory video and learning materials which are available without charge and which may be shared with others.

For more information:

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

ABM is a global community of medical doctors and affiliates with diverse backgrounds, experiences, perspectives, and specialties. Through its worldwide membership, peer-reviewed journal, Fellowship in Breastfeeding Medicine, Annual International Meeting, and partnerships with other organizations, ABM has created a network of experts and advocates to drive medicine forward in this crucial area. 

Membership: Cost

For more information:


NIDCAP - The NIDCAP Federation International (NFI)

improves the future for all infants in hospitals and their families with individualized, developmental, family-centered, research-based NIDCAP care.

Membership: Cost

For more information:


European Standards of Care for Newborn Health 

With our work we are calling attention to the growing challenge of preterm birth and its significant impact on the children, families and our society. We want to reduce the enormous health and social inequalities linked to preterm birth.

Membership: Free

For more information:


The iKMC News series by the American Academy of Pediatrics

The iKMC News series by the American Academy of Pediatrics  through funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and in collaboration with the World Health Organization, other implementing organisations and several national professional societies, showcases a series of webinars aimed at promoting new evidence on immediate Kangaroo Mother Care (iKMC).

This series features global experts in iKMC and small and sick newborn care supporting a global paradigm shift of zero separation for mothers and babies with a goal to improve quality of care and outcomes for small and sick newborns. 

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KMC newborn toolkit

The KMC info pack from the Newborn toolkit

To highlight the benefits and planning required for implementing effective KMC initiatives, we encourage you to read through the KMC related material collated by the Newborn toolkit team. 

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Country Experiences with iKMC

The 'Kangaroo mother care' method: India introduces first ward to provide immediate KMC

Following the WHO iKMC study, India introduced the first ward to provide iKMC health services at the hospital where the trial was conducted in new Dehli.

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international stillbirth alliance-logo-300x84.png

Global Advocacy and Implementation Guide - International Stillbirth Alliance

This action-focused guide brings together existing resources and practical guidance to inform planning, investments and programmes aimed at ending preventable stillbirths and improving care for all women and families who experience stillbirth. It also highlights case studies from a wide range of contexts to showcase what can be achieved.

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British Association of Perinatal Medicine

British Association of Perinatal Medicine, Resources page

One place for all our frameworks, resources and policies

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Bliss for babies born premature or sick

Bliss for babies born premature or sick

We’re here to support parents and families of premature or sick babies

Access website:


USAID - Preventing Child and Maternal Deaths: A Framework for Action in a Changing World

USAID envisions a world where all women, newborns, and children survive, are healthy, and able to develop and reach their full potential, contributing to the development of their communities and countries. 

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'Where We Work' map:

International Council of Nurses

International Council of Nurses - Recover to rebuild, March 2023


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International Council of Nurses - Sustain and Retain in 2022 and Beyond, January 2022

International Council of Nurses - State of the worlds nursing report 2020

International Council of Nurses - Sustainable Development Goals

Adopted in 2015 by the United Nations,  the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) encompass a broad range of sustainable development issues for the world, such as ending poverty, hunger, improving health and education, combating climate change and many others.

Access resources:,climate%20change%20and%20many%20others.

World Health Organisation

WHO - World Health Organisation

WHO is the United Nations agency that connects nations, partners and people to promote health, keep the world safe and serve the vulnerable – so everyone, everywhere can attain the highest level of health. 



Global Patient Safety Plan -


The WHO Global Strategic Directions for Nursing and Midwifery (2021-25) -


World Health Organisation

Essential Newborn Care (WHO)
High-quality universal newborn health care is the right of every newborn everywhere.

Babies have the right to be protected from injury and infection, to breathe normally, to be warm and to be fed. All newborns should have access to essential newborn care, which is the critical care for all babies in the first days after birth. Essential newborn care involves immediate care at the time of birth, and essential care during the entire newborn period. It is needed both in the health facility and at home.

World Health Organisation

WHO Human Resource Strategies To Improve Newborn Care in Health Facilities in Low and Middle-Income Countries

Every year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm – before 37 weeks of pregnancy. That is more than 1 in 10 live births. Approximately 1 million children die each year worldwide due to complications from their early birth. Those that survive often face a lifetime of ill-health including disability, learning difficulties, and visual and hearing problems. Half of the babies born at or below 32 weeks (2 months early) die in low-income settings, due to a lack of feasible, cost-effective care, such as warmth, breastfeeding support, and basic care for infections and breathing difficulties. In high-income countries, almost all these babies survive. Today, (November 2020) on World Prematurity Day, WHO launched a new Roadmap on human resource strategies to improve newborn care in health facilities in low- and middle-income countries, aimed at improving quality of care for newborns, including small and sick babies, and supporting countries to achieve the SDG target to reduce neonatal mortality to less than 12 per 1000 live births by 2030.

World Health Organisation

WHO Recommendations for Care of the Preterm or Low-Birth-Weight Infant

The recommendations in this guideline are intended to inform development of national and subnational health policies, clinical protocols and programmatic guides. The target audience includes national and subnational public health policy-makers, implementers and managers of maternal, newborn and child health programmes, health-care facility managers, supervisors/instructors for in-service training, health workers (including midwives, auxiliary nurse-midwives, nurses, paediatricians, neonatologists, general medical practitioners and community health workers), nongovernmental organizations, professional societies involved in the planning and management of maternal, newborn and child health services, academic staff involved in research and in the pre-service education and training of health workers, and those involved in the education of parents.

Global alliance for newborn care

Zero Separation Statements

This campaign is supported by more than 140 national and international parent- and patient organisations, international healthcare professionals and medical societies including the World Health Organization (WHO). Download their statement for your communication to advocate a zero separation policy in neonatal care.


Ending Preventable Newborn Deaths and Stillbirths By 2030 (UNICEF)

UNICEF is committed to providing affordable, high-quality health care to mothers and newborns

before, during, and after pregnancy. To achieve this goal, UNICEF and partners have adopted

the Every Newborn Action Plan, which provides a roadmap for reducing newborn mortality and

stillbirths and improving maternal and newborn health by 2030. The updated targets and

milestones for 2020-2025 include ensuring that every pregnant woman has four or more

antenatal care contacts, every birth is attended by skilled health personnel, every woman and

newborn receives early routine postnatal care within two days, and every small and sick

newborn receives care. UNICEF is supporting countries in implementing these

recommendations and reaching these goals by providing essential packages of high-quality

maternal and newborn services, such as home visits, small and sick newborn care, and

kangaroo care. Four indicators have been identified to track progress towards these goals:

antenatal care, births attended by skilled health personnel, postnatal care within two days, and

care for small and sick newborns. Currently, data on these indicators are derived from

population-based household surveys, but efforts are underway to strengthen routine health

information systems to capture this information rapidly at the subnational level.

British association of perinatal medicine

British Association of Perinatal Medicine (BAPM) (2021) 

Advanced Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Capabilities Framework

The purpose of this framework is to give a career pathway to ANNPs working in any level or unit or within the transport setting. This model makes clear how ANNPs can progress outside the limitations of the clinical rota by setting out a variety of career development pathways using the four pillars of advanced practice: clinical practice, leadership and management, education and research.


The framework sets out the capabilities expected under each of these pillars at the level of ANNP, Senior ANNP and Consultant Nurse.

British association of perinatal medicine

British Association of Perinatal Medicine BAPM 

Identification and Management of Neonatal Hypoglycaemia in the Full Term Infant (Birth – 72 hours)

Hypoglycaemia is a leading cause of term admission to neonatal units. In 2016 NHS Improvement and BAPM convened a working group to develop a Framework for Practice to address variation in practices in the definition of hypoglycaemia, the identification, management and admission thresholds of babies admitted to neonatal units for hypoglycaemia, and to promote safer practices that avoid unnecessary separation of mother and baby.


This update of the Framework is to ensure alignment of recommended clinical practice with the most up-to-date scientific evidence. 


This document is aimed at all healthcare professionals involved in the care of infants born at term during the first 48 - 72 hours after birth.

The framework should be delivered in partnership with parents.


We welcome your comments on the update of this Framework for Practice.

Resuscitation Council UK 

Newborn resuscitation and support of transition of infants at birth Guidelines


Joe Fawke, Jonathan Wyllie, John Madar, Sean Ainsworth, Robert Tinnion, Rachel Chittick, Nicola Wenlock, Jonathan Cusack,

Victoria Monnelly, Andrew Lockey, Sue Hampshire, Published May 2021.


WHO-UNICEF Expert and Country Consultation on Small and/or Sick Newborn Care Group (2023) 


WHO-UNICEF Expert and Country Consultation on Small and/or Sick Newborn Care Group. A comprehensive model for scaling up care for small and/or sick newborns at district level–based on country experiences presented at a WHO-UNICEF expert consulta- tion. J Glob Health 2023;11:03023 (Open Access) 

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Narayanan, I., Litch, J. A., Srinivas, G. L., Onwona-Agyeman, K., Abdul-Mumin, A., Ramasethu, J. (2023)


At-risk newborns: Overlooked in Expansion From Essential Newborn Care to Small and Sick Newborn Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Global Health: Science and Practice (Open Access). 

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Perez-Escamilla, R., Tomori, Cl, Hernandez-Cordero, S, Baker, P., Barros, A. J. D., Begin, F. etal (2023)


Breastfeeding: crucially important, but increasingly challenged in a market-driven world. The Lancet (Open access) 

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World Health Organization (2023) 


Congenital Disorders. 

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Arya, S., Chhabra, S., Singhal, R., Kumari, A., Wadhwa, N., Anand, P. et al. (2023)


Effect on neonatal sepsis following immediate kangaroo mater care in a newborn intensive care unit: a post-hoc analysis of a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial. The Lancet (Open Access). 

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Charpak, N., and Montealegre-Pomar, A. (2023)


Follow-up of Kangaroo Mother Care programmes in the last 28 years: results from a cohort of 57 154 low-birth-weight infants in Colombia. BMJ Global Health (Open Access)

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American Academy of Pediatrics


Immediate Kangaroo Mother Care (iKMC) series. 

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Lee, A. CC., Cousens, S., Wall, S. N., Niermeyer, S., Darmstadt, G. L., Carol, W. A., Keena, W. J., Bhutta, Z. A., Gill, C., Lawn, J. E. (2011)


Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Delpha estimation of mortality effect. BMC Public Health (Open Access). 

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Darlow, B. A., Zin, A. A., Beecroft, G., Moreira, M. EL., Gilbert, C. E. (2012)


Capacity building of nurses providing neonatal care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: methods for the POINTS of care project to enhance nursing education and reduce adverse neonatal outcomes. BMC Nursing (Open Access). 

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Lee H., Kim, D., Han, J. (2020)


Developing Nursing Standard Guidelines for Nurses in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Delphi Study. MDPI (Open Access).

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Popowicz, H., Kwiecien-Jagus, K., Medrzycka-Dabrowska, W., Kopec, M., Dyk, D. (2022)


Evidence-Based Nursing Practice for the Prevention of Newborn Procedural Pain in Neonatal Intensive Therapy-An Exploratory Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Open Access). 

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Linner, A., Westreup, B., Rettedal, S., Kawaza, K., Naburi, H., Newton, S., et al. (2023)


Immediate skin-to-skin contact for low birth weight infants is safe in terms of cardiorespiratory stability in limited-resource settings. Global Pediatris. 

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Manjunatha, C. M., Abourahma, A., Ibhanesebhor, S. E., Mathews, A. Z. (2021)


A newborn with wrinkly skin: what is the diagnosis? Infant Journal. 

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Van Rens, M., Hugill, K., El Fakharany, A. E. F., Garcia, K. L. (2021)


Persistent left superior vena cava and the correct interpretation of a peripherally inserted central catheter tip position. Infant Journal.

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Pahuja, A., James, H., D’Costa, W., Al-Jaddir, G., Kaur, D. (2021)


Congenital epulis and differential diagnoses of a neonatal oral mass. Infant Journal.

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Thomas, B., Anderton, C. J. (2021)


Trauma in fathers following complicated childbirth: the need for intervention. Infant Journal.

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Chow, S., Chow, R., Popovic, M., Lam, M., Popovic, M., Merrick, J., et al (2015)


A selected review of the mortality rates of neonatal intensive care units. Frontier Journal.

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Horbar, J. D., Edwards, E. M., Greenberg, M. S. et al (2017) 


Variation in Performance of Neonatal Intensive Care Units in the United States. JAMA Pediatrics Journal. 

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Sigurdson, K., Mitchell, B., Liu, J., Morton, C., Gould, J. B.. Lee, H. C. et al. (2019) 


Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Neonatal Intensive Care: A Systematic Review. American Academy of Pediatrics Publication.

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Braun, D., Braun, E., Chiu, V. et al (2020)  


Trends in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Utilization in a Large Integrated Health Care System. JAMA Network.

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Slusher TM, et al. Filtered sunlight versus intensive electric powered phototherapy in moderate-to-severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia: 


A randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

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Garg, B. D., Bansal, A., & Kabra, N. S. (2020)


Role of Kangaroo Mother Care in the Management of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Both Term and Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review. Journal of Perinatal Education, 29(3), 123–133.

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Føreland, A.M.; Rosenberg, L:; Johannessen, B. (2016)


Nurses' experiences using conventional overhead phototherapy versus fibreoptic blankets for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

Access Resource: Journal of Neonatal Nursing. ISSN: 1355-1841. 22 (3). s 108 - 114. doi:10.1016/j.jnn.2016.01.001.





Joel, H. N., Mchaile, D. N., Philemon, R. N., Mbwasi, R. M., & Msuya, L. (2021)


Effectiveness of FIBEROPTIC phototherapy compared to conventional phototherapy in treating HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA amongst term neonates: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatrics, 21(1), 1–9. 

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Hansen Thor, W. R., Jeffrey, M. M., Finn, E., Vreman, H. J., Stevenson, D. K., Wong, R. J., & Bhutani, V. K. (2020)


Sixty years of phototherapy for neonatal jaundice – from serendipitous observation to standardized treatment and rescue for millions. Journal of Perinatology, 40(2), 180-193. 

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Educational plans / checklists

Video repository

Neonatal Tracheal Intubation" by Lindsay Johnston for OPENPediatrics

This instructional video developed in collaboration with INSPIRE will discuss the indications and contraindications for tracheal intubation, review pertinent airway anatomy and equipment used, and demonstrate the steps required to successfully perform tracheal intubation. Additionally, potential complications, appropriate aftercare, and common pitfalls will be discussed.

Respiratory Assessment" by Brienne Leary for OPENPediatrics

In this video, Brienne Leary, RN, demonstrates how to perform a pediatric respiratory exam, reviews respiratory considerations for the intubated patient, and explains how to monitor a patient's respiratory status.

Respiratory Distress in the Newborn" by Megan Connelly for OPENPediatrics

In this video, the viewer will learn the differential diagnosis for newborn respiratory distress, and the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and management of its most common etiologies.

LearningRadiology 18 (Neonatal Lung Disease)


Step-by-step we cover the pathophysiology of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), as well as its diagnosis, and treatment. We cover echo findings, iNO, Oxygen, pre and post-ductal sats and supportive strategies.

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome - Tala Talks NICU

Why do babies with MAS get so sick? Learn who gets MAS, when they get it, why they get so sick, and how we treat MAS.

What do the numbers on a ventilator mean? Part I- Tala Talks NICU

Learn the four basic concepts of breathing (negative vs. positive pressure, oxygenation, ventilation and compliance) in a VERY easy to understand way. Then part II will be a natural progression- applying these concepts to a conventional ventilator. In part III we'll go over gases, and adjustments we'd make on ventilators.

Ventilator settings made EASY - Ventilator 101 Part 2 - Tala Talks NICU

In part I you learnt PIP, PEEP, rate, and compliance. Now let's apply those to the ventilator- in addition to I time (Time) and pressure support. Learn which (and why) parameters change oxygenation and ventilation. If you get this lecture, you'll be well on your way to understanding gases.

Truly UNDERSTAND blood gases! Interpretation of blood gases PART I.

WHY are blood gases so helpful? What is the pH (and what do we accept in newborns)? And what is a normal PC02 level? What about a PO2 level? What's the difference between the oxygen saturation and the PO2? LEARN ALL THIS AND MORE!

INTERPRET a sample Blood Gas - LET'S REVIEW - Tala Talks NICU

WHY are blood gases so helpful? What is the pH (and what do we accept in newborns)? And what is a normal PC02 level? What about a PO2 level? What's the difference between the oxygen saturation and the PO2? LEARN ALL THIS AND MORE!

What causes Neonatal Pulmonary Edema - NICU Nuggets - Tala Talks NICU

Learn the 3 different mechanisms that can result in pulmonary edema!

Cardiovascular Assessment" by Brienne (Johnson) Leary, RN, BSN, CPON, CCRN

Learn to assess a pediatric patient’s cardiovascular status and perform a detailed physical exam with a focus on cardiovascular status.

Clinical Presentation of Congenital Heart Disease: Murmurs" by Michael Freed, MD

Clinical Presentation of Congenital Heart Disease: Arrhythmias" by Michael Freed, MD

This video reviews the presentation of congenital heart disease in the first week of life and focuses on the identification of common neonatal murmurs that are associated with congenital heart disease.

Clinical Presentation of Congenital Heart Disease: Congestive Heart Failure" by Michael Freed, MD

Clinical Presentation of Congenital Heart Disease: Cyanosis" by Michael Freed, MD

Dr. Michael Freed gives an overview on how cyanotic congenital heart disease presents in the first week of life.

Fetal Circulation" by Lisa McCabe, for OPENPediatrics

Learn about the anatomy and physiology of fetal and postnatal circulation.

What ACTUALLY causes that fluid build-up??!!

When is a puffy fetus called hydrops? Why does the fetus become edematous? What are all the conditions that cause hydrops? Learn all this and a lot more in part I of our hydrops series.

What is a normal blood pressure for a neonate? - NICU Nuggets - Tala Talks NICU

What is a normal BP for a premature infant? When should we treat low blood pressures? Why is a low blood pressure concerning? Watch this video and learn these answers!

PDAs: STEP-by-STEP explanation- Tala Talks NICU

Everything you need to know about PDAs explained so you will understand and retain the information forever! Anatomy, physiology, signs and symptoms, echo and Xray findings and then treatment and management strategies.


Global health media

Global Health Media

We believe in the power of video to save lives

Our live-action teaching videos help learners at all levels easily understand and remember health care skills and practices. 

Clear, practical and trusted videoswith step-by-step guidance for health workers and caregivers in multiple languages.

  • Nurse
    The nurse is a person who has completed a program of nursing education and is authorized by the appropriate regulatory authority to practice nursing in their country. All nurses and midwives can work at the bedside of the small and sick newborn following completion of a structured neonatal education and competency-based mentorship. (link to our 12 week)
  • Midwife
    A midwife is a person who has successfully completed a midwifery education programme that is based on the ICM Essential Competencies for Midwifery Practice and the framework of the ICM Global Standards for Midwifery Education and is recognized in the country where it is located; who has acquired the requisite qualifications to be registered and/or legally licensed to practice midwifery and use the title ‘midwife’; and who demonstrates competency in the practice of midwifery (ICM, n.d.).
  • Post-Diploma Degree: Post-Diploma Program
    A post-diploma program is a course that can be 1 to 2 years in length. Can be a specialization, for example, Post Diploma Program in Neonatal Nursing. COINN statement: All nurses and midwives can work at the bedside of the small and sick newborn following completion of a structured neonatal education and competency-based mentorship.
  • Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing (Bachelor’s degree)
    This is a university awarded degree (undergraduate level) for registered nurses or midwives. Programs and acronyms vary: Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSc or BSN), Bachelor of Nursing Science (BNSc). Some countries have programs where Bachelor in Neonatal Nursing is awarded. A nurse/midwife with a Bachelor’s degree can work at the bedside of the small or sick neonate following completion of structured neonatal education and competency-based mentorship. ( They may also work as administrator in the neonatal unit, clinical educator, clinical preceptor.
  • Master of Science in Nursing (Master’s degree)
    This is a university awarded graduate degree; this degree can be a specialty-recognized Master’s degree (in neonatal nursing). Programs and acronyms vary reflecting Master of Science degree in Nursing: MSc or MSN. There are several roles for nurses with Masters’ degre. Advanced Practice Nurse (APN), Nurse Practitioner (NP) or Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS). Advanced Nurse Practitioners (APN, NP) as autonomous clinicians can manage, diagnose, and prescribe for the small and sick newborn as well as conduct referrals for acute and chronic health issues based on evidence informed guidelines (ICN, 2020, Section 3.4). Country-specific regulations apply to ability/authority to diagnose, prescribe medications, refer clients/patients to other services. Clinical Nurse Specialist (sometimes called Neonatal Nurse Specialist) is an expert nurse, a clinical educator and faculty/clinical preceptor working within the multi-disciplinary team in the care of the care of the small and sick newborn with an established diagnosis; a nurse who ensures evidence-based quality in nursing care and provides leadership in advancing nursing practice via research and interdisciplinary education (ICN, 2020, Section 2.3). CNS may or may not have prescribing authority in their specialty (country specific regulations apply). International Council of Nurses (2020). Guidelines on Advanced Practice Nursing 2020. Retrieved from:
  • Doctoral Degree in Nursing
    A university-awarded doctoral degree which is the terminal (final or highest) degree in nursing. There are two tracks: Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (PhD, a ‘doing-a-research and finding evidence’ oriented degree) and Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP, an ‘implementing-evidence and finding best practices’ oriented degree). DNP training is to provide the nurse/midwife to be a leader in the clinical settings to advance clinical practice. Ph.D. training is to provide the nurse/midwife to be a leader in the academic/research-based positions to advance clinical practice.
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